The Science of Reading: Unlocking the Power of Literacy

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What is the
Science of Reading?

The science of reading is an evidence-based approach to teaching and learning that draws upon decades of research in cognitive science, linguistics, and psychology. It aims to understand how the brain processes written language and identifies the most effective strategies for teaching reading skills.

Children Reading
Science of Reading

Why is the Science of
Reading Important?

Understanding the science of reading is crucial because it provides educators with insight into the most effective instructional methods. By aligning teaching practices with research-based strategies, we can better support learners in developing strong reading skills, comprehension, and language proficiency.

What are the 6 Key Concepts of the
Science of Reading?

Phonemic Awareness

The ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken language, which is foundational for reading.


The systematic instruction of letter-sound correspondences, enabling readers to decode and encode words.


The ability to read with accuracy, speed, and prosody, allowing readers to comprehend text effortlessly.


The understanding of word meanings and the ability to effectively use a range of words to express ideas.


The active process of understanding and making meaning from text, involving background knowledge, inferencing, and critical-thinking skills.

Language Development

The importance of oral language skills in supporting reading acquisition, including vocabulary, syntax, and grammar.

Phonemic Awareness: 

Phonemic awareness is a crucial skill that forms the basis for developing strong reading and spelling abilities. It is essential for understanding the alphabetic principle and facilitating effective phonics instruction.


Phonics is the systematic and evidence-based reading instruction of letter-sound correspondences, enabling readers to decode and encode words. Understanding the relationship between letters and sounds ultimately allows learners to develop into proficient readers.


Fluency is a skill that involves reading words accurately and quickly as well as incorporating expression and intonation to convey meaning. Fluent readers smoothly navigate written material because of their ability to accurately comprehend and engage with it.


Vocabulary is defined as the comprehension of word meanings and the skill to proficiently use a variety of words to articulate thoughts. It is also fundamental to effective communication. Developing a robust vocabulary enhances expressive abilities and contributes significantly to reading comprehension and overall cognitive growth.


Comprehension is the dynamic process of actively understanding and deriving meaning from text. Effective comprehension instruction plays a crucial role in this process by guiding students to become independent, strategic, and metacognitive readers. 

Language Development: 

Language development is the development of strong oral language skills. It is a significant support to reading acquisition which includes vocabulary, syntax, and grammar.

FAQ: Science of Reading

The science of reading is an approach to teaching reading that focuses on the systematic and explicit instruction of the six foundational literacy skills: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and language development. What sets it apart from traditional reading instruction is its reliance on rigorous scientific evidence and a well-established body of knowledge. While other methods may lack a systematic approach and scientific grounding, the science of reading offers evidence-based reading instruction that maximizes its impact in developing strong readers.
The science of reading benefits struggling learners by providing targeted support. Classroom teachers can identify specific areas of difficulty, implement focused interventions, and consider individualized instruction plans. This science-based reading instruction not only ensures a solid foundation in reading but also promotes a deeper understanding of language nuances and fosters critical thinking skills. By integrating scientific research into instructional methods, the science of reading empowers learners of any level with the tools to navigate a wide range of texts confidently and independently.
The science of reading is anything but a one-size-fits-all instruction method. This differentiated approach ensures each student receives targeted support in an inclusive and effective learning environment. Through personalized instructional strategies, such as multisensory activities, adapting materials to different learning styles, and providing additional support, students are positioned to progress at their own pace and maximize their reading potential.
As an effective classroom practice, teachers can support emergent readers by emphasizing phonemic awareness and phonics activities. Use engaging and decodable texts, provide ample opportunities for reading practice, and celebrate small successes to build confidence and motivation.
Instructional practices aligned with the science of reading include explicit phonics instruction, balanced literacy, comprehension strategies, and the development of foundational reading skills. These practices are designed to meet the unique needs of learners and enhance overall literacy proficiency.

Reading development typically follows a progression similar to the following outline. These stages are, however, generalizations, and individual development can vary. Effective reading instruction supports students at each of these stages to ensure a strong foundation and continuous growth.

  1. Emergent Reading: In this initial stage, young children are exposed to print and begin to understand that written language carries meaning. They may show an interest in books, recognize some letters, and understand basic concepts about print.

  2. Early Reading (Decoding): As children develop phonemic awareness and phonics skills, they move into the early reading stage. They learn to decode words, associate letters with sounds, and start reading simple, decodable texts. Fluency and accuracy improve during this phase.

  3. Fluent Reading: At this stage, usually in late elementary school, students are becoming skilled readers with increased speed and accuracy when it comes to comprehension. They can comprehend text more effortlessly, making the reading process more automatic. Vocabulary and comprehension skills continue to expand.

  4. Orthographic Lexicon Development: While becoming fluent readers, students build their orthographic lexicon—a mental store of word spellings and patterns. They recognize words at a glance, enhancing their reading efficiency and overall proficiency.

  5. Reading to Learn: In middle and high school, students transition from learning to read to reading to learn. They tackle more complex texts across various subjects, extracting information, analyzing content, and applying critical-thinking skills.

  6. Advanced Reading: As students progress through higher education and into adulthood, their reading skills become highly advanced. They can understand and analyze complex information, synthesize ideas, and engage with specialized texts in their chosen fields.

The six key concepts of the science of reading—phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and language development—are integral components of science-based reading instruction. When taught together, each concept works to ensure learners are developed into well-rounded and effective readers. Here’s how they can be used in classroom instruction:

  1. Phonemic Awareness: Phonemic awareness is developed through explicit and systematic activities that focus on recognizing and using individual phonemes (sounds). Teachers employ activities such as segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds to help students grasp the fundamentals of spoken language, alphabetic principles, and phonics skills.

  2. Phonics: Teachers guide students through systematic phonics instruction where they practice matching letters to sounds, blending sounds to form words, and decoding unfamiliar words. Additionally, phonics instruction often involves word games, phonics-based reading materials, and teacher-modeled examples to reinforce the connection between letters or letter combinations and their associated sounds. 

  3. Fluency: Fluency is cultivated through reading practice with an emphasis on accuracy, speed, and expression. To learn this, students engage in repeated reading, guided oral reading, and modeled reading to enhance their ability to read with ease, expression, and comprehension.

  4. Vocabulary: Vocabulary instruction emphasizes the understanding of word meanings and the effective use of a variety of words. Teachers incorporate explicit vocabulary instruction, context clues, and exposure to thorough and diverse texts to enhance students' word knowledge and usage.

  5. Comprehension: Comprehension instruction involves teaching students to actively understand and discover the meaning of any given text. Strategies such as questioning, summarizing, making connections, and visualization are employed to guide students in comprehending and critically engaging with written material.

  6. Language Development: Language development is supported by activities that enhance oral language skills, including syntax, grammar, and overall linguistic proficiency. Teachers integrate language comprehension and development into reading instruction by promoting discussions, encouraging expression, and cultivating a language-rich environment that complements the written aspect of literacy.

Teacher with students

How Do I Begin Implementing the Science of Reading in
My Classroom?

At Voyager Sopris Learning®, we provide resources and guidance about implementing the science of reading in educational settings. Our expert team and authors have curated a range of tools, strategies, and instructional materials that align with evidence-based practices, empowering educators in their professional development so they can deliver high-quality reading instruction through all grade levels.

Get Started on Your Science of Reading Journey

We offer opportunities for educators seeking to deepen their understanding of the science of reading with free webinars, blog posts, podcasts, and other content that include practical insight and strategies for effectively teaching reading skills based on the latest research.

Become a part of our EDVIEW360 community, where educators, researchers, and authors come together to share insight, best practices, and success stories. You will learn why the science behind learning to read is important for student success and how you can implement it in your school or district.

Connect with us through our blog and social media channels to stay updated on the latest advancements in the field and engage in meaningful discussions.


Add your email here to sign up for EDVIEW360 blogs, webinars, and podcasts. We'll send you an email when new posts and episodes are published.

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Ready to dive into the science of reading with aligned intervention solutions?

Backed by decades of literary research, our intervention and assessment products are all built and based on the science of reading. Explore our evidence-based solutions to intervene and provide essential diagnostic instruction for K–12 students who struggle with reading and literacy.

Meet Our Reading Intervention Programs